Have SSMC sequences been given "Provisional" names?
As you may have guessed by now, sequencing has turned taxonomy for mushrooms on its head. Many mushrooms thought only recently to be different species are now, with the added benefit of DNA, realized as belonged to a single species. Consequently, some named species will disappear. At the same time we now know that other species previously grouped together as a single species must be broken up; for instance when DNA for a mushroom from the Pacific Northwest is very different than the DNA of the originally named species from Europe.
The trend now, fully adapted by Steve Russell, Danny Miller and Harte Singer - to name some of the influential minds - is to give a new species hypothesis (SH) a "Provisional Number Name". So for instance, our local Gliophorus psittacinus - the local Parrot - now is referred to as G. psittacinusPNW02. The qualifier "PNW" means that it was first recognized in the Pacific Northwest and the number "02" in this case means it is the second Parrot to be recognized from the PNW as being different. SSMC members are really racking up the provisional names! For instance Kitty on a DNA result from the January Mycoblitz had one result with a "CA01" qualifier and another as Mycena "sp-IN22" Both unnamed species.
Connor who was at the SSMC ID table this year has the latest Parrot now going as G. psittacinus PNW08. The number "08" does not mean it is the 8th Parrot to be identified, it means it is the 8th species in the genus Gliophorus that is recognized as new. SSMC has sequenced 6 of the 8 new Gliophorus as determined by Danny Miller - and that does not count Connors mushroom that was sequenced by PSMS. Connors mushroom that actually was found in Oregon and sequenced by PSMS, still gets the PNW qualifier.
The mushroom shown here has the provisional name of Gliophorus psittacinusPNW01. Notice the lack of green color. There are other differences too, but significantly, the DNA is very different. (07/05/2023)
Hydnellum peckii - Not!
With a common name of Strawberries and Cream, one would think the H. peckii was at least edible. In the new edition of Steve Trudell book, Mushrooms of the Pacific Northwest, the picture of the H. peckii to me looks more like vomit! However, Steve does do something in his PNW book that I have not seen before and that is he mentions a "distinctly rough-hairy" mushroom with a "sharp peppery taste, that grabs the back of your throat" as a similar species but that resides on the east coast. Hydnellum diabolus.
So when SSMC sent in a tooth fungi found by Mary McCallum that was expected to be H. peckii, we were shocked when the sequence suggested the "eastern" H. diabolus! Where this sequence results gets especially interesting is that H. diabolus has been virtually abandoned as a species and has instead now been lumped in with the Strawberries and Cream species. But when Mary’s sequence is compared to other species in GenBank, the closest match to H. peckii was a dismal 88.86%! Taken with the characteristics suggested by Steve Trudell, this is absolutely a distinct species and any suggestion to combine it with the H. peckii is wrong. It looks like the conclusion that the species is an east coast species is also incorrect. The benefit of DNA!
While the best case match to H. peckii is a dismal 88.86%, Mary’s mushroom does match a recent sequence from the Oregon Coast at 100% with a 100%qc. Confirmation, the species exist here. Besides getting it sequenced, Mary also used some of the fungi as an experimental dye where she dyed a silk scarf. Watch for a picture of that on Facebook.
The following sequence results from SSMC efforts represent those orders placed after the original MP Project representing OLY numbers. This list represents the orders placed and are grouped according to order shipped. Many - but not all - orders are through FunDiS. Each order number is completely arbitrary. As of this date at the end of 2021, many of these have not yet been sequenced. - Steve Ness 1/9/2022
Order #18 Mycoblitz results (By SSMC Member)
Arrhenia, but Arrhenia what?
The latest SSMC sequence to be bouncing around the world is an observation by Kitty that she found at the Port of Shelton prairie edge habitat. It originally was expected to go into GenBank as Arrhenia subglobisemen which is a rather new species described from France in 2016. However our friend Andrus just led a paper that just coincidentally looked at the Arrhenia group. In that paper the scientist suggested that two sequences from Norway likely should be worked up and given species status as sister species to A. subglobisemen. They are calling the potential new species AC-1.
What fabulous pictures of a beautiful mushroom. If you put this species name into the massive GenBank repository and request results, you get just one hit! That result is a sequence by SSMC made on a mushroom Lauren Re´submitted. How can such a strikingly beautiful fungi have only one sequence? If you do a Blast of the one entry in GenBank, which looks at all the other gazillions of sequences to find best matches, there is only one okay match - to Omphalina viridis. Same species which demonstrates how quickly taxonomy is changing the names of mushrooms. New genus name AND new species name! According to Buck McAdoo in his new book Profiles of Northwest Fungi, before this name the species was known as Clitocybe smaragdina where it is was then thought to be -"Rare in North America.......it had been recorded only four time between 1939 and 1962". If you do a search in UNITE, the largest sequence bank in Europe, here too you get just these two sequences.
If any individual or scientist anywhere in the world goes to GenBank or UNITE to learn more about this species, that one hit that they will first see is a sequence done by SSMC member Lauren Re´ . The first and so far only!!! But wait, SSMC has done a second sequence of this species turned in by Lucas Hickey that is yet not in GenBank. Again, SSMC is making information available to scientist that no one else is. Fabulous pictures by Lauren!
Maybe a Sarcodon?
Sometimes the DNA results are surprising to what they match as in the case of Melodie's H. reidii, while at other times we get a DNA match to hardly anything and wonder what the DNA is now trying to tell us. From high in foothills of the Olympics on the Wynoochee Pass Trail, Regina found the interesting tooth fungi pictured here. Regina thought maybe Sarcodon calvcatus but a DNA match to the closest of that species was a dismal 83.08% (66% qc). Remembering that a good number to start thinking species separation is 97% - so at 83% this is clearly a different species. When we do a blast in GenBank, which compares Regina's sequence to all others in this huge database, there are only two matches worth considering. The only really close match is to a fungi from China at 99.1% (99%qc) which is listed as a Sarcodon but with no species name. The second closest match is to maybe a mushroom from Scotland. This one has no species name attached either so likely these three belong to a new undescribed and unnamed species. One from Urumqi China, one from Scotland and now a third form Wynoochee Pass in the Olympics! How crazy is that that these three far flung mushrooms are so closely related - but not to anything else? Great discovery by Regina.
Melodie Gates of SSMC found the first example of this mushroom in Washington State during an early Evergreen MP foray - actually likely to be the first confirmed observation this side of the Mississippi River! A second 100% match to Melodie's find was later sequenced also by the SSMC. The second sequence from a very different location and habitat as it was taken from the Olympic Mountains old growth forest. This second mushroom was also a fascinating surprise. The fact that these two sequences expands the range of this species by half a continent is surprising enough, but there is more to the story about Melodie's find; the mushrooms from the PNW match up closest with European H. reidii. Sequences from Wales and Norway are virtually a perfect match while matches to eastern NA are more distant. None of the field guides from western US have this species even listed so it likely very rare here. Usually with an ID characteristic of the sweet smell of honey. Unknown edibility.